The philosophy of the ancient world
at the rate “PHILOSOPHY”.
Topic 2. “The philosophy of the Ancient world”
1. The doctrine of the cosmos and in man: the problem of existence. A consideration of the nature and
society in the philosophy of the Ancient world.
2. Plato, as the founder of objective idealism.
3. The formation of ancient dialectics.
… In order to understand
the modern state of thought,
the surest way to remember
how humanity came to him…
A. I. Herzen. Letters about the study of nature.
The development of theoretical thinking and the formation of philosophy
imagine a long process, the prerequisites of which may be found on
early stages of human society. Ancient philosophical systems,
trying to find an answer to the question of the origin, the essence of the world and places
the person in it, had a long prehistory, they appeared on
relatively advanced stage of class relations.
The emergence of philosophy is a natural result of the formation and
human development. The rudiments of philosophical ideas begin to appear in
the bowels of the mythological interpretation of reality, Continue reading
The largest Islamic religious buildings of antiquity
Sasanian Iran became the most important region for the spread of Islam and development of Islamic culture, including architecture. Scandicci Iran has existed since at 651 226 years, it included the territory of modern Iran, Afghanistan, parts of Armenia and Georgia. It is in this era and in these areas formed the basis for further architectural development of Arab States.
So, on Afghanistan and Iran in the middle ages appeared a few major cities — Shiraz, Isfahan, Ghazni, Herat, Kabul and other. All these cities had roughly the same structure, is quite clearly divided into three parts: citadel, Shakhristan (main town) and Rabat (trade and crafts town). On the territory of Shakhristan was based sofas, there are official buildings, mosque, quarterly mosques, bazaars, madrasas and other facilities.
Madrassas and mosques in their architectural designs had some similarities — primarily the plans. The plan itself has defined a large rectangular courtyard which was surrounded by galleries with exposed beams. These floors were supported on pointed arches or arches in the shape of a horseshoe, which was based on columns or piers. Principal Continue reading
He chetvertyi largest in Europe after St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome, St. Paul’s in London and Seville Cathedral in Seville. In terms of capacity, inferior only among the Gothic churches of Seville, and among the Italian churches, only the Cathedral of St. Peter in Rome. The features of the Gothic in the Cathedral. High pointed arches, ribbed vaults and frame system supports helped to block a giant space, increase the height of the building and to clear the walls from the load, without fear that they will fall. Penetrating the walls of huge Windows, the interior of the Church was high and bright. So technology has created the need for new design, and she, in turn, an original artistic image. Forms of architecture began to Express the Christian idea of spirituality, striving upward to the sky. the Archbishop of they look like flames, extended Gables, spires pointed and directed upwards. Medici (1563), the wooden choir, Egyptian porphyry bath IV century, which is used as a baptismal font. Stunning statue of the Christian Martyr St Bartholomew, alive … which had been skinned. The first six Windows of the right nave wall covered with stained-glass Windows of the XV century Continue reading