The Gothic Cathedral
At the turn of 12 – 13th centuries on the basis of this “Assembly” has several quite different from each other types of temple architecture. During the reconstruction of the choir in Lana, as we have noted, occurred on a return to an earlier architectural style, the hallmark of which was the abundance of details. In Seasone same thing happened the opposite. Instead of continuing the reconstruction of the Cathedral in an elegant style described above a four-story transept, customers chose a different option: a new choir and the Central nave were built in the same style as the Abbey Church in Brehna, is three-tiered in vertical section and with a smaller number of pylons. In spite of this, tiers of the nave and choir in Seasone was higher than the Lansky, and together exceeded in height even the former seasonski the transept. Reducing the number of tiers in the end led to a significant gain in the overall height of the building. For the first time in the history of Gothic architecture, the arcade and some of the upper Windows of the Central nave was approximately equal proportions, which was achieved by expanding the area of the Windows and lifting the arches.
The tendency to simplify architectural forms can be noted also in the outside the design of the Cathedral. This is particularly evident in comparison with the Church of Saint-Remi in Reims. Thanks to the clear rhythmic structure of buttresses and flying buttresses choirs of both buildings on the outside are similar to each other, although in a choir swansom not four, but three tiers. And yet the builders of this Cathedral did not create the special dynamic of the relationship between the openings of Windows and buttresses, which we observed in the structure of the Church of Reims, and the ornamental decoration of all three tiers here about the same. The spectacular appearance of Saint-Gervais-et-Prot were achieved not by sophisticated detailing, and due to the standardized massive, boldly outlined with stone designs.
New aesthetics of simplicity and monumentality, clearly visible on the example swansboro choir, was radically different from the aesthetics of subtlety and fine detailing which can be seen in the old transept of the same Cathedral. There is every reason to suppose that at the end of the new chorus customers had intended to demolish the old building and erect in its place a new – a new monumental style. And the fact that the southern part of the transept is preserved, although the North was reconstructed, was due solely to the lack of funds for further work. In the end seasonski Cathedral turned into the complete opposite of Laon. Instead to expand its project based on the old architectural style (as entered in Lana), and architects decisively abandoned the old style in favor of the new. Medieval restorers of both cathedrals used completely different means, but the goal was one: to create a completely uniform structure and as thoroughly as possible to hide its original shape.
Chartres Cathedral, the most important of French churches of the virgin Mary, began to build the new monumental Swanson style after a fire in 1194 on the site of an older building. However, the fire spared the crypt and the West façade, which can be saved, but they enjoyed special honour and was not considered of General interest “shrines”. By the end of the 12th century increasingly chose to build a completely new building and has not tried to preserve as many elements of the former. This trend becomes obvious in the analysis of stories and legends that arose in connection with the devastating fire at Chartres and with the reconstruction that a caused. Initially, the fire was perceived as a catastrophe, for thought along with the temple and killed the Holy relics of the virgin. But when the relics discovered in safe and sound, attitude toward fire changed dramatically: it was interpreted as the sign by which the virgin Mary expressed the wish that she built a new temple, more beautiful still. Mindful of how to care Abbot Suger a half a century earlier came to the reconstruction of the Abbey Church and how deeply he revered the old stones of which the walls were stacked her (in his own words, these stones he “was buried like a true relics ”), we can once again marvel at the fact that in Chartres, the virgin, reputedly, she destroyed a temple dedicated to her. Does it follow that the new Gothic architecture that developed in the Royal domain of France, managed to gain such respect that no serious justification for the reconstruction of the temples in this style were not necessary?
In its basic structure, the interior of the Cathedral in Chartres is almost indistinguishable from the interior of Saint-Gervais-et-Prot in Seasone. Arcade and upper rows of Windows of the Central nave, which is located between trifore, there is also a much higher than normal and approximately the same height. But despite all the similarities, swanski and Chartres cathedrals are fundamentally different from each other. It is impossible not to notice for example any single motif of the interior. For example, the support columns in Seasone, despite a considerable height, almost as fine and thin as in Laon, and to each of them is adjacent to only one thin pilasters. In Chartres, on the contrary, the main pillars almost twice as thick and is surrounded by four pilasters, each of which by itself can compete in thickness with swanski columns. The maximum thickness of Chartres columns – 3, 7 m, whereas in Seasone barely reach 1 column, 4 m in thickness. To explain this huge difference in the thickness of columns total height of the building: the Cathedral in Chartres is only slightly above swansboro. The true reason for such differences is that the creators of the Cathedral in Seasone wanting to make it above other churches, just extended columns. And the creators of the Cathedral of Chartres, on the contrary, made them much thicker, and therefore stronger. Here we come to the very essence of innovation shown by the architects to Chartres: they built the temple became not only the largest of the Gothic cathedrals of the time, but the most magnificent in everything, down to the smallest detail. Although the vaults of Chartres Cathedral, than even Notre Dame de Paris, they do not seem neither too huge nor too lightweight, but the impression of a massive and extremely powerful. At the same time, the interior of the Cathedral in Chartres is not devoid of elegance: the octagonal columns in the Central nave with alternating round; to round columns pilasters are adjacent octahedral and octahedral – opposite, round. Since this alternation is preserved in the beams and pilasters supporting the arches, the entire hall of the nave catches the eye with its delicate nanovaccines rhythm.