SEVEN WONDERS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD
SEVEN WONDERS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD
Seven wonders of the world (or the Seven wonders of the Ancient World) — famous list of the most celebrated sites of the ancient culture. The choice of the number consecrated by the most ancient representations of his fullness, completeness and perfection, the number 7 was considered a sacred number of the God Apollo (the Seven against Thebes, the Seven sages, etc.). Like collections of sayings of famous sages, collections of anecdotes and stories about some essays about the Seven wonders of the world were popular in ancient times and included descriptions of the most grandiose, the most magnificent or in a technical sense the most striking buildings and monuments of art. That’s why they were called miracles, while in the list there are no many true masterpieces of ancient architecture and art — the Acropolis in Athens with the creation of Phidias — the statue of Athena Parthenos, the famous statue of Aphrodite of Cnidus work by Praxiteles, etc.
Mention of the Seven wonders appear in the writings of Greek authors, starting from the Hellenistic era. They had to know already at school, they wrote, scientists and poets. In the text of one of the Egyptian papyrus, representing a kind of textbook, mentions compulsory for learning the names of famous legislators, painters, sculptors, architects, inventors, hereinafter — the greatest island, mountains and rivers and, finally, the seven wonders of the world. “Selection” of miracles happened gradually, and some miracles were replaced by other.
THE HANGING GARDENS OF BABYLON
“Hanging gardens” was a pyramid consisting of four tiers-platforms. They were supported by columns of up to 25 meters high. The lower tier had the shape of an irregular quadrangle, the greatest side of which was 42m, and the lowest — 34m. The pyramid resembled a forever blossoming green hill. In the cavity of one of the columns was placed a pipe, then the water from the Euphrates pumps constantly applied to the upper tier of the gardens, where she’s from, flowing streams and small waterfalls, watered the plants of the lower tiers.
The great pyramid of Giza
Original height of pyramid was 147 meters, but due to the fact that from-for earthquakes on the pyramid collapsed cladding, its height has now reduced to 7, 5 meters and is now 138 metres. The side length of the pyramid is 230 meters. It was composed around 2, 3 million stone cubes average weight 2, 5 tons which have been fitted to each other with unsurpassed accuracy. Is not used a binder. Each block weighed about 2 tons. The pyramid is almost monolithic structure, with the exception of the burial chamber and leading to her corridors. There is almost no internal space, except for a narrow ventilation shafts.
The temple of Artemis at Ephesus
This magnificent structure was mounted on a huge platform 131m long and wide 79м, on which were placed twenty-meter 127 columns that surrounded him in two rows, and some columns were carved and bas-reliefs. These columns were built of huge marble blocks (set by units), connected by metal pins. Inside the temple was covered with marble plates. In the main hall stood a statue of Artemis with a height of 15 meters, covered with gold ornaments and jewels. Inside the temple was decorated with wonderful statues and even more gorgeous pictures.
The lighthouse of Alexandria
The lighthouse was in the form of a three-storey tower height of 120 meters. At the base of it was a square with sides of ten metres, steady sixty first floor of the tower was built of stone slabs and supported forty-metre octagonal tower, faced with white marble. On the third floor, in the round, enclosed by columns that tower forever burned a huge fire, reflected a complex system of mirrors. Firewood was hauled up the spiral staircase, so steep and wide that it to the hundred-meter height entered the carts pulled by donkeys.On the tower there were many ingenious technical adaptations: weathervanes, astronomical instruments, clocks.
The Colossus Of Rhodes
36-foot bronze giant appeared in the form of tall and slender youth-God with a radiant crown on his head. He was standing on a white marble pedestal, slightly lean back, and tensely peered into the distance. The statue of the God stood right at the entrance to the Harbor of Rhodes and was visible podplyvaya with the neighbouring Islands. In the base of the statue was clay with a metal frame, the top decorated with bronze leaves. For the manufacture of a Grand monument took 500 talents of bronze and 300 talents of iron (respectively about 13 and about 8 tons).
The mausoleum of Halicarnassus
The master conceived the mausoleum as a large rectangular building with width of about 66 m, a length of about 77 m. In height it reached 46 m and was divided into three parts. The first floor served as osypaetsya of Mausolus and Artemisia. At the foot of the building were placed the marble statues of lions and galloping riders. Lower and upper ceilings of the premises of the mausoleum was supported on the inside by fifteen columns.