The largest Islamic religious buildings of antiquity

The largest Islamic religious buildings of antiquity

Sasanian Iran became the most important region for the spread of Islam and development of Islamic culture, including architecture. Scandicci Iran has existed since at 651 226 years, it included the territory of modern Iran, Afghanistan, parts of Armenia and Georgia. It is in this era and in these areas formed the basis for further architectural development of Arab States.

So, on Afghanistan and Iran in the middle ages appeared a few major cities — Shiraz, Isfahan, Ghazni, Herat, Kabul and other. All these cities had roughly the same structure, is quite clearly divided into three parts: citadel, Shakhristan (main town) and Rabat (trade and crafts town). On the territory of Shakhristan was based sofas, there are official buildings, mosque, quarterly mosques, bazaars, madrasas and other facilities.

Madrassas and mosques in their architectural designs had some similarities — primarily the plans. The plan itself has defined a large rectangular courtyard which was surrounded by galleries with exposed beams. These floors were supported on pointed arches or arches in the shape of a horseshoe, which was based on columns or piers. Principal the difference from the madrassas mosques was that the gallery of the courtyard of the madrasah was divided into small rooms (khudjras), designed for accommodation of pupils of the school.

The main reference for the Islamic shrines of religious buildings was the Mecca is sacred to all supporters of Islam. The direction of Mecca mihrab was fixed — the Central altar niche of a small size located in the center of the wall, facing the Holy city.

At that time, was made on the altar side of the yard to construct a prayer building, covered with a dome. The entrance to the premises was built in the form of an arched portal, large enough, while the smaller portals were built on the sides — they were in other halls for prayers.Aivan or pistak was the name of the main portal, which was developed on the facade of the building. I must say that arched portals received very wide circulation in the East, and they were actively used not only in religious but also in all other constructions. A crucial part of the main façade of the building, of course, was the minaret is a high tower, from the top platform which the clergy were convened by citizens for morning prayer.

In the era of Sasanian Iran were built and the remarkable scale of the mosque is the Great mosque of Damascus, the mosque of AMR and Ibn Tulun in Cairo, and others. All of them had so-called “neighborhood plan” that was described above. However, there were variations — thus, a very original plan was at Jerusalem the mosque of the Rock. It was built in the shape of an octagon. This unusual plan came about after the restructuring of the remnants of the Christian Church, which was built on the site of Solomon’s temple.

In addition, very active in this period began the construction of the mausoleums, the tomb, which architecturally was a cube with a dome. Some cities have built entire complexes of mausoleums — an example of this necropolis can be seen in Samarkand.

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