The philosophy of the ancient world
The philosophy of the ancient world
at the rate “PHILOSOPHY”.
Topic 2. “The philosophy of the Ancient world”
1. The doctrine of the cosmos and in man: the problem of existence. A consideration of the nature and
society in the philosophy of the Ancient world.
2. Plato, as the founder of objective idealism.
3. The formation of ancient dialectics.
… In order to understand
the modern state of thought,
the surest way to remember
how humanity came to him…
A. I. Herzen. Letters about the study of nature.
The development of theoretical thinking and the formation of philosophy
imagine a long process, the prerequisites of which may be found on
early stages of human society. Ancient philosophical systems,
trying to find an answer to the question of the origin, the essence of the world and places
the person in it, had a long prehistory, they appeared on
relatively advanced stage of class relations.
The emergence of philosophy is a natural result of the formation and
human development. The rudiments of philosophical ideas begin to appear in
the bowels of the mythological interpretation of reality, already in the III-II
millennia BC in the records of the mythological texts.
Already in the conditions of tribal communities, entirely dependent on nature,
man began to affect the natural process, gaining experience and knowledge
have an impact on his life. The world is gradually becoming
the subject of human activity. Their attitude to the world he was not aware and,
of course, could not be expressed in theoretical form. The selection of a person from
the outside world was accompanied by various magical rites,
symbolizing his desire to connect with nature.
The development of practical human activity involves
improving his ability of foresight, based on a specific
the sequence of events and, thus, the attainment of some
laws of natural phenomena. The most important factor influencing the progress of the
this process is the need to explain and reproduce
the results of cognition. The development of language, and especially the emergence of abstract
concepts is an important theoretical evidence of the formation of
the thinking and folding of the preconditions for the emergence of General reasoning, and
The burial of the dead, the remains of sacrifices, various items
the cult nature of the show that people since time immemorial
sought to find answers to the questions, what is life, when it occurs and
The most important milestone in the development of human thinking was the invention of
writing. She brought not only new opportunities of knowledge transfer, but
and enriched background for the development of their own knowledge. First
proof of the existence of writing at the turn of the 4th and 3rd millennia
BC have been obtained in the territory of Mesopotamia and Egypt.
Philosophy for the first time in human history, originated in ancient times in
the first class societies of the ancient East – in Egypt, Babylonia, India,
China and prosperity was achieved at the first stage in the ancient world – ancient
Greece and ancient Rome. To ancient philosophy, we include ancient philosophy
East (China and India), Greece and Rome, the philosophy of the middle Ages and
Renaissance. In ancient China, and India, in Ancient Greece and other regions
human civilization, the first philosophical views are born in close
connection with the mythological beliefs of the people. It found its expression
especially that people still poorly imagined a difference between themselves
and nature, between the individual and the collective.
Philosophical views of the ancients originally took the form of spontaneously-
materialistic tendencies, leading its origin from “naive realism”
primitive people. In the era of the slave system, in the process of further
the development of social life, the acute struggle of classes and social groups,
the appearance of sprouts of scientific knowledge, in the countries of the ancient East occurred
the formation of materialist philosophies and systems, folding
in the struggle against idealism.
The most ancient written monuments of the middle East regions
imagine a holistic philosophical systems with a precise conceptual apparatus. In
they do not reflect the problems of existence and non-existence of the world (ontology), no
of clarity in the question of the human capacity to know the world (epistemology). On
this stage of our development came only ancient thinkers who stand at the beginning
the European tradition of philosophical thinking. In ancient Indian
philosophy is already a question was raised about the General Foundation of the world. So
the base was considered impersonal world spirit, Brahman. In accordance with
the teachings of Vedanta, the soul of each individual, which is considered
immortal, inferior to the world spirit in its perfection. A similar pattern
the formation of philosophical ideas developed in Ancient China. All
more attention began to be paid to the problems of man, his life. TO THE VI-V
century BC philosophical views have reached a high level of development that
found its expression especially in Confucianism, the doctrine founded prominent
thinker Confucius (551-479 BC). A characteristic feature of
philosophical ideas of the ancient East was the evolution of human exploration
actually, evolution in which there was a transition from mythical
imagination to rational thinking and impersonal paintings of the world, where
the man was only a part of the natural environment to the picture of the world where
people began to realize its specificity, its place in the world, the attitude to
it went to consciousness of the meaning of his existence.
The development of ancient Greek philosophy and all further related
her traditions would not be fully understood and explained without knowledge
heritage thoughts of ancient civilizations of the Middle East that had a
significant influence on Greek culture in the most ancient layers of it.
Ancient Greek philosophy is the philosophy of the ancient Greeks and
the ancient Romans. It was formed in 6 – 7th centuries before.N. uh. about 1200 years.
Ancient philosophers lived in the Greek colonies of Asia Minor, in
trading and economic centres, where not only were they surrounded by East
material culture, not only felt the political power of the States
the middle East region and got acquainted with various special
knowledge, religious beliefs, etc., This lively and comprehensive
the contact with different cultural layers was to influence Greek
thinkers who sought theoretically to issue your Outlook.
By their nature and focus of the content, especially the method
philosophizing it differs from the ancient Oriental systems of philosophy and
is, in fact, the first ever attempt of rational comprehension
the world. For ancient philosophy was characterized by the art and
pregnenolona interpretation of reality. The world acted as the macrocosm,
and man the microcosm. Ancient philosophy – an exceptional contribution to the development of
world civilization, its role is extraordinary high. Here was born
European culture and civilization, here is the beginning of Western philosophy, almost
all subsequent schools ideas and concepts, categories of problems. All
times, up until today, the European science, culture, philosophy
back to antique philosophy as the source and the cradle, the sample
thinking. The term “philosophy“ occurs here too. This term
common in ancient Greek philosopher Pythagoras (580 -500 BC). But in
name special industry knowledge of the Genesis, man, the meaning of his
life, knowledge, he was introduced by Plato (428/27до BC) as opposed to
“sofas” – the wise man – prophet, who had “Sophia” is the divine
wisdom, “the philosopher“ has no divine truth, complete and
completed. A philosopher is a person seeking wisdom, seeking, loving
the truth. Therefore, the aim of the philosopher is to understand the “whole as a whole”, to understand what
the original cause, the first cause of being. The Greeks believed that the beginning
philosophy in the surprise of the man in front of the world and yourself, and wonder in
Traditionally, in the development of ancient philosophy there are four main