The Gothic Cathedral
Although the term "Gothic" is most often applied to architectural structures, the Gothic style also included sculpture, painting, book miniature, costume, ornament and so The origin of the term the…

Continue reading →

France
The Cathedral of Notre Dame built by Robert de Luzarches is a true masterpiece of Gothic architecture and also the last in a series of Gothic cathedrals of Ile-de-France, erected…

Continue reading →

The philosophy of the ancient world

The philosophy of the ancient world

Test

at the rate “PHILOSOPHY”.

Topic 2. “The philosophy of the Ancient world”

The PLAN:

Introduction.

1. The doctrine of the cosmos and in man: the problem of existence. A consideration of the nature and

society in the philosophy of the Ancient world.

2. Plato, as the founder of objective idealism.

3. The formation of ancient dialectics.

Conclusion.

INTRODUCTION.

… In order to understand

the modern state of thought,

the surest way to remember

how humanity came to him…

A. I. Herzen. Letters about the study of nature.

The development of theoretical thinking and the formation of philosophy

imagine a long process, the prerequisites of which may be found on

early stages of human society. Ancient philosophical systems,

trying to find an answer to the question of the origin, the essence of the world and places

the person in it, had a long prehistory, they appeared on

relatively advanced stage of class relations.

The emergence of philosophy is a natural result of the formation and

human development. The rudiments of philosophical ideas begin to appear in

the bowels of the mythological interpretation of reality, already in the III-II

millennia BC in the records of the mythological texts.

Already in the conditions of tribal communities, entirely dependent on nature,

man began to affect the natural process, gaining experience and knowledge

have an impact on his life. The world is gradually becoming

the subject of human activity. Their attitude to the world he was not aware and,

of course, could not be expressed in theoretical form. The selection of a person from

the outside world was accompanied by various magical rites,

symbolizing his desire to connect with nature.

The development of practical human activity involves

improving his ability of foresight, based on a specific

the sequence of events and, thus, the attainment of some

laws of natural phenomena. The most important factor influencing the progress of the

this process is the need to explain and reproduce

the results of cognition. The development of language, and especially the emergence of abstract

concepts is an important theoretical evidence of the formation of

the thinking and folding of the preconditions for the emergence of General reasoning, and

thus philosophy.

The burial of the dead, the remains of sacrifices, various items

the cult nature of the show that people since time immemorial

sought to find answers to the questions, what is life, when it occurs and

why ends.

The most important milestone in the development of human thinking was the invention of

writing. She brought not only new opportunities of knowledge transfer, but

and enriched background for the development of their own knowledge. First

proof of the existence of writing at the turn of the 4th and 3rd millennia

BC have been obtained in the territory of Mesopotamia and Egypt.

Philosophy for the first time in human history, originated in ancient times in

the first class societies of the ancient East – in Egypt, Babylonia, India,

China and prosperity was achieved at the first stage in the ancient world – ancient

Greece and ancient Rome. To ancient philosophy, we include ancient philosophy

East (China and India), Greece and Rome, the philosophy of the middle Ages and

Renaissance. In ancient China, and India, in Ancient Greece and other regions

human civilization, the first philosophical views are born in close

connection with the mythological beliefs of the people. It found its expression

especially that people still poorly imagined a difference between themselves

and nature, between the individual and the collective.

Philosophical views of the ancients originally took the form of spontaneously-

materialistic tendencies, leading its origin from “naive realism”

primitive people. In the era of the slave system, in the process of further

the development of social life, the acute struggle of classes and social groups,

the appearance of sprouts of scientific knowledge, in the countries of the ancient East occurred

the formation of materialist philosophies and systems, folding

in the struggle against idealism.

The most ancient written monuments of the middle East regions

imagine a holistic philosophical systems with a precise conceptual apparatus. In

they do not reflect the problems of existence and non-existence of the world (ontology), no

of clarity in the question of the human capacity to know the world (epistemology). On

this stage of our development came only ancient thinkers who stand at the beginning

the European tradition of philosophical thinking. In ancient Indian

philosophy is already a question was raised about the General Foundation of the world. So

the base was considered impersonal world spirit, Brahman. In accordance with

the teachings of Vedanta, the soul of each individual, which is considered

immortal, inferior to the world spirit in its perfection. A similar pattern

the formation of philosophical ideas developed in Ancient China. All

more attention began to be paid to the problems of man, his life. TO THE VI-V

century BC philosophical views have reached a high level of development that

found its expression especially in Confucianism, the doctrine founded prominent

thinker Confucius (551-479 BC). A characteristic feature of

philosophical ideas of the ancient East was the evolution of human exploration

actually, evolution in which there was a transition from mythical

imagination to rational thinking and impersonal paintings of the world, where

the man was only a part of the natural environment to the picture of the world where

people began to realize its specificity, its place in the world, the attitude to

it went to consciousness of the meaning of his existence.

The development of ancient Greek philosophy and all further related

her traditions would not be fully understood and explained without knowledge

heritage thoughts of ancient civilizations of the Middle East that had a

significant influence on Greek culture in the most ancient layers of it.

Ancient Greek philosophy is the philosophy of the ancient Greeks and

the ancient Romans. It was formed in 6 – 7th centuries before.N. uh. about 1200 years.

Ancient philosophers lived in the Greek colonies of Asia Minor, in

trading and economic centres, where not only were they surrounded by East

material culture, not only felt the political power of the States

the middle East region and got acquainted with various special

knowledge, religious beliefs, etc., This lively and comprehensive

the contact with different cultural layers was to influence Greek

thinkers who sought theoretically to issue your Outlook.

By their nature and focus of the content, especially the method

philosophizing it differs from the ancient Oriental systems of philosophy and

is, in fact, the first ever attempt of rational comprehension

the world. For ancient philosophy was characterized by the art and

pregnenolona interpretation of reality. The world acted as the macrocosm,

and man the microcosm. Ancient philosophy – an exceptional contribution to the development of

world civilization, its role is extraordinary high. Here was born

European culture and civilization, here is the beginning of Western philosophy, almost

all subsequent schools ideas and concepts, categories of problems. All

times, up until today, the European science, culture, philosophy

back to antique philosophy as the source and the cradle, the sample

thinking. The term “philosophy“ occurs here too. This term

common in ancient Greek philosopher Pythagoras (580 -500 BC). But in

name special industry knowledge of the Genesis, man, the meaning of his

life, knowledge, he was introduced by Plato (428/27до BC) as opposed to

“sofas” – the wise man – prophet, who had “Sophia” is the divine

wisdom, “the philosopher“ has no divine truth, complete and

completed. A philosopher is a person seeking wisdom, seeking, loving

the truth. Therefore, the aim of the philosopher is to understand the “whole as a whole”, to understand what

the original cause, the first cause of being. The Greeks believed that the beginning

philosophy in the surprise of the man in front of the world and yourself, and wonder in

Traditionally, in the development of ancient philosophy there are four main