The Cathedral of Notre Dame built by Robert de Luzarches is a true masterpiece of Gothic architecture and also the last in a series of Gothic cathedrals of Ile-de-France, erected in the XIII century. The construction of the Cathedral in Amiens began almost simultaneously with Reims . In 1218 the fire caused by lightning, was destroyed existed here a Cathedral of Romanesque architecture. The first stone in the Foundation of the new temple was laid in 1220, under Bishop Arnaud de La Pierre (he died in 1247 and was buried in the Central chapel of the Cathedral). The builders were Amiens Cathedral Robert de Luzarches, Thomas de and then Cormon and his son Renaud de Cormon. The basis of the project, the builders took the Cathedral in Chartres, somewhat redefining the project.
According to the original plan, the tower of the Cathedral had to be twice as wide and much higher than the existing, but the builders decided to stay lifted up the tower only to half height, why there is a feeling of disharmony. In 1366 started the construction of the tent is over the southern tower. The Northern tower was completed only in the early fifteenth century.
The Amiens Cathedral is impressive for its size. Its length is is 145 metres maximum width – 59 meters, height of the arches of the Central nave reaches of 42.5 meters, width of the nave is 14.5 meters, the total building area is 7800 square meters. The Cathedral was so large that could accommodate the entire population of Amiens . numbering at that time about 10 thousand people. Robert managed to build in Amiens the temple, surpassing in size even the Chartres and Reims cathedrals. A key role was played by the decision of the architect to abandon the typical installation of large stone blocks on each other. As a model he chose not Rheims and Chartres massive supporting pillars, and more elegant pillars in the Cathedral Seasone, perfectly adequate to the conception of the Cathedral in Amiens is not only decorative, but also from a structural point of view. And at the same time from Chartres was borrowed from the system of four slim columns surrounding the support post. Losing Rheims and Chartres columns in thickness, Amiens supports surpass them in height. As regards the construction of the choir, the architects of Amiens even refused triforia rear wall (which used to be considered a mandatory element), whereby this stage, dark in other churches, there was a brightly lit and visually merged with velikolepnym openwork tracery of the upper Windows of the Central nave.
The Amiens Cathedral is beautiful from all sides. Slim tower tent lantern above the crossing enhances the overall impression of striving upward and emphasizes the height of Gothic design. Light graceful buttresses, surmounted with pinnacles that rise from the base of the Cathedral to its roof.
Traditional rose-window in the Cathedral of Amiens made in the form of eight-petalled flower of the rose, reminiscent of a newly blossomed Bud. And rose and Lancet Windows with a height of 12 meters, used to be glazed with multicolored stained glass. Therefore, the high vaults of the Cathedral seemed to be shaded and as it rested on the walls, shining with a soft iridescent light. Soft lighting fell while on the other hand – depending on time of day. And the lightest part of the Cathedral was the altar, illuminated by tall Lancet Windows of the apse. Such skillful light distribution, generally characteristic for the Gothic cathedrals of France, created a special sublime mood of praying. But in order to properly distribute these streams of light, had to be extraordinary wizard.
Beautiful middle nave of the Cathedral was seen as the personification of the idea of a vertical composition of a Gothic Cathedral; tripartite division of its walls the height of the arcade piers of the lower layer reached a height of triforia and lantern together. The sense of height is enhanced by the streams of light pouring through the glass of the lamp, a slim, soaring groups of columns with pointed arches, and a sleek vertical lines of the lattice stained glass Windows in the sanctuary.
The facade of Amiens Cathedral is distinguished by a rare fusion of architecture and sculpture. Researchers believe that the works were supervised by the Builder who was a prominent sculptor and head of a large gang of craftsmen-masons. He managed to bring a single idea to all the participants. They are decorated with sculptural reliefs with scenes from the old Testament and the life of citizens (4500 pieces). The sculptural decoration of the three portals of the Cathedral on three themes: the theme of the last judgment, the virgin Mary and the locally venerated Saint, the first Bishop of the city Firmino, canonized and became the patron Saint of Amiens. The statues decorating the Central facade, performed at 1224-1230. The decoration of the South facade of Amiens Cathedral is the famous sculpture “the Golden Madonna”, referring to the middle of the XIII century. It was once gilded, for which he received its name. This magnificent sculpture served as a model for many subsequent buildings of France and Europe.
After whimsical carved decoration of the facades inside the Cathedral, expect to see something extraordinary. The temple walls almost devoid of decoration – surrounds their only relief garland. The interior of the Church is divided almost in half by a wide transept. Going deep into a slim, lightweight colonnade with a height of 18 meters in the temple creates the impression of space, space permeated by air and light. Much of this feeling is achieved due to the large size of the building, but even more because of a lack of traditional stained glass.
The Amiens Cathedral had a great influence on the architects, erected in later times the Gothic buildings in other areas of France.
This city is very fond of Zhulyu Back. It was here that he wrote some of his “extraordinary journeys”. The famous writer has done a lot for the city as a municipal councillor. In 2005, Amiens celebrates 100 years since the writer’s death. In honor of Jules Verne will be held numerous exhibitions, conferences and cultural programs.