Survey of underground structures
Survey of underground structures
When designing urban and industrial development, streets and roads availability of comprehensive information on existing and envisaged future of underground engineering networks and facilities is of paramount importance.
Problems of operation and development of cities, related to deficit areas, increasing traffic flow, the preservation of monuments of history and architecture, by increasing the area of green plantings require more intensive use of underground space. Therefore, the nomenclature of underground structures is expanding, increasing their power, complicated technological and technical characteristics.
When designing new cities this task is somewhat simplified and consists of gathering detailed data on all of the designed underground structures as for top-priority works, and In the future, these data must include not only the underground structures of the urban economy, but also through the underground networks that serve to ensure the work of industrial enterprises for any purpose, and transit national, provincial, regional and district networks (water pipelines, gas pipelines, conduits, ducts, cable lines of high voltage, communication cable lines, etc.). All these data must belong to a single integrated plan of underground engineering networks and constructions. These plans show the horizontal and vertical position of all gaskets, chambers, wells.
However, the design of new towns, only in rare cases is conducted in the areas previously not inhabited. Usually cities are created in areas that already have a particular industrial, residential, municipal and warehouse and other buildings, and therefore already have some form of underground economy. In the design and reconstruction of city streets, roads or construction of new facilities in the old cities, as a rule, the project organization is found with a highly branched, multifunctional, owned by various operating agencies, of underground engineering communications network, built at different times.
Control over the design of underground engineering networks and the account of them in major cities are divisions of underground constructions architectural and planning offices in cities Republican, territorial and regional significance: sector or Bureau of the Department (division) for construction and architecture, and in other cities the engineers underground structures, subordinated to the Department of municipal economy of the Executive Committee of the city Council. Consideration of underground networks and structures deals with urban basic surveying organization. Therefore, the initial stage of finding underground facilities is to obtain from the organization responsible for these structures, existing planning materials. Typically, the geophysical basis should be issued with all horizontal and vertical data. In cases where these data are absent or incomplete, or do not take into account the current changes, you must perform a full or partial survey of underground structures.
The challenge of shooting underground structures is the determination of their horizontal and vertical position, as well as establishing their basic technical characteristics.
Survey of underground networks and structures include: preparatory work (study plans with underground networks and structures, preparation of preliminary schemes, Networks, and structures); and reconnaissance survey of the region, where it is supposed to work, trenching; instrumental altimetric geodetic survey cameras, wells and other outputs (if appropriate imaging of underground structures is carried out troublesomely are surfovanie and drilling).
All field work is carried out optionally in the presence of the organizations operation of those or other underground networks and structures. If the staff and operational organizations does not know the location of underground facilities, of industrial geodetic organization participating in the inventory, recognoscere and inspect underground structures in nature.
At the stage of preparatory works, the surveyors collect and examine all planned and reference material available in the archives of the organization and the Central review and coordinating body. Of great importance are materials previously held accounting of underground structures. When visiting reconnaissance and identify the network in kind, establish and specify the General scheme of communications, the interconnection between the wells, examine the network, the inputs and releases of buildings, specify the volumes of forthcoming works.
The presence of underground networks in nature show: low-voltage networks— wells, the outputs of the cable to the surface, distribution cabinets and boxes, traces of irregularities of the road surface, subsidence, geodetic signs, bound to the tracks, etc.; cables strong currents — wells, the outputs of the cable to the surface, electrical substation, transformer facilities and distribution centers, special ground warning signs, entries to buildings, subsidence, etc.; sewer networks, wells, outfalls, pumping stations, treatment facilities, ventilation pipes on the old lines, etc.; heating systems — wells and domestic boiler rooms, exits to the surface of individual parts of the heating system, the lack of snow cover on the heat in winter, subsidence, etc.; set and water— wells. water pumps, emergency releases, water tower, water supply unit, special signs on buildings showing the location of fire hydrants, etc.; gas network wells, test tubes, siphons, ground outs, undeveloped territories and geodetic points, which bound the track, etc.; drainage network — grid inlet wells, hatches of wells and chambers, the releases, the upper and lower end walls, etc.; electrical safety installations—elektrodrazenie and a rectifier, etc.; common collectors— hatches, vents and risers, control room, etc.