The architecture of the Palace of Soviets
The architecture of the Palace of Soviets (part 4 – the Ancient East has left us huge constructions. )
The ancient East has left us a huge buildings like pyramids, temples, palaces in which the forms that suppress human rights, has found its vivid expression of the social structure of ancient despotism, the system of slavery, a system of intimidation of human rights. Architectural ensembles and monumental buildings of Greek antiquity created by the ancient democracy of the heyday of the Athenian state. The Acropolis and its constituent temples, including the Parthenon, represented the brilliant examples of architecture, imbued with a deep sense of nature and man, thin plastics architectural and sculptural forms. These samples were studied the architecture of all subsequent centuries. These samples are of great interest and instructive to us.
However, even these architectural works of antiquity bear the features of the limited class, of which I have spoken. Ancient democracy was developed on the basis of the slave economy. Only a limited proportion of the people, the so-called free citizens of the ancient States, to participate in public life, create cultural values and use them. The nature of the social system of ancient Greece is reflected throughout the ancient culture.
More sharply this inner inherent limitations of classical culture, had an impact in Rome. Largest state the buildings of ancient Rome’s forums, baths and palaces, was the center of social life for the Roman nobility. But for the mass of Roman citizens, not to mention slaves, they were only sight, inaccessible and alien to the people.
In all ages the Builder of all large and small facilities was the people, the people built palaces and monumental buildings not for themselves.
In the middle ages, when the most monumental and significant buildings were religious buildings — cathedrals, the religious-mystical beginning suppressed genuine ideas and images of folk art, although the builders of the cathedrals, out of the people, and tried, contrary to the dictates of the Church, to capture the architectural and sculptural forms similar images and stories.
Whatever era in the history of architecture, we everywhere encounter the same pattern: the Builder is a parody, but he builds not for himself, and only very rarely gets the opportunity to Express, in architectural images, their aspirations, their ideals. The Renaissance was for its time cutting-edge models of the architectural culture. Character of Renaissance architecture reflected the progressive ideas of bourgeois humanism. This architecture is largely freed from the oppressive authority of the Catholic Church. However, the best of the Renaissance buildings — palaces and villas remain infinitely far from the people, they served a narrow circle of urban bourgeoisie and aristocracy. These are the Florentine Palazzo, throughout their internal structure, all its architectural solution designed for the top of the Florentine society. And in those cases when the palaces were built of separate feudal lords, they turned to building closed-loop, tightly fenced off from the outside world. Suffice it to recall such an example as the Farnese Palace in Caprarola. It is a great piece of the Renaissance represents the architecture and the layout a real fortress, towering above the neighbouring villages and, as if threatening them.
This isolation of the largest monumental structures from the masses even more sharply expressed in the palatial buildings of the European absolutism of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Palaces and Palace ensembles of this era represent the residence of the individual feudal lords. Their architecture, layout, inner structure only serve to underline the juxtaposition of the person and power of the Lord to the people.
The same closed and inaccessible to the masses was and old monumental buildings. It should be noted that in old Russian architecture, even in such constructions, as the monastery and the fortified ensembles, Kremlins, churches, folk art has managed to manifest itself more vividly and directly than similar facilities in Western Europe.
The era of capitalism is marked by a deep decline of monumental architecture. In this era also built palaces, but the Palace buildings have nothing to do with those traits of monumentality, which was characteristic of antiquity, the Renaissance and other periods of flowering of the architecture. Palaces, who build their own modern monetary magnates of the capitalist world, characterized by complete absence of architectural ideas, bad taste, ostentatious external tinsel. Pseudononymously character is given to various government buildings of the bourgeois state — the Parliament, ministries, stock exchanges, banks etc.